Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is anÂ anxiety disorderÂ caused by very stressful,Â frightening or distressing events.
Someone with PTSD often relives the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt.
They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia, and find concentrating difficult.
These symptoms are often severe andÂ persistent enough to have a significant impact on the person's day-to-day life.
Any situation that a person finds traumatic can cause PTSD.
These can include:
- serious road accidents
- violent personal assaults, such as sexual assault, mugging or robbery
- serious health problems
- childbirth experiences
PTSDÂ can develop immediatelyÂ after someone experiences aÂ disturbing event, or itÂ can occur weeks, months or even years later.
PTSD is estimated to affect about 1 in every 3 people who have a traumatic experience, but it's not clear exactly why some people developÂ the conditionÂ and others do not.
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
People who repeatedly experience traumatic situations, such as severe neglect, abuse or violence, may be diagnosed with complex PTSD.
Complex PTSD can cause similar symptoms to PTSD and may not develop until years after the event.
It's often more severe if the trauma was experienced early in life, as this can affect a child's development.
When to seek medical advice
It's normal to experience upsetting and confusing thoughts after a traumatic event, but most people improve naturally over a few weeks.
You should see a GP if you or your child are still having problems about 4 weeks after the traumatic experience, or if the symptoms are particularly troublesome.
If necessary, your GP can refer you to mental health specialists for further assessment and treatment.
PTSD can be successfully treated, even when itÂ develops many years afterÂ a traumatic event.
Any treatment depends on the severity ofÂ symptoms and how soon theyÂ occur after the traumatic event.Â
Any of the following treatment options may be recommended:
- watchful waiting â monitoring yourÂ symptoms to see whether they improve or get worse without treatment
- antidepressants â such asÂ paroxetine orÂ mirtazapine
- psychological therapies â such as trauma-focusedÂ cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)Â or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR)
You can refer yourself directly to a psychological therapies service.